1 Katie Costello and Laurence Goasduff, “Gartner Says Worldwide IaaS Public Cloud Services Market Grew 31.3% in 2018,” Gartner, July 29, 2019, https://www.gartner.com/en/newsroom/press-releases/2019-07-29-gartner-says-worldwide-iaas-public-cloud-services-market-grew-31point3-percent-in-2018.
2 Iain Withers and Huw Jones, “For bank regulators, tech giants are now too big to fail,” Reuters, August 20, 2021, https://www.reuters.com/world/the-great-reboot/bank-regulators-tech-giants-are-now-too-big-fail-2021-08-20/.
3 Sarah Wang and Martin Casado, “The Cost of Cloud, a Trillion Dollar Paradox,” Andreessen Horowitz, May 27, 2021, https://a16z.com/2021/05/27/cost-of-cloud-paradox-market-cap-cloud-lifecycle-scale-growth-repatriation-optimization/; and “Do the costs of the cloud outweigh the benefits?” The Economist, July 3, 2021, https://www.economist.com/business/2021/07/03/do-the-costs-of-the-cloud-outweigh-the-benefits.
4 Alison DeNisco Rayome, “Google Photos’ unlimited free storage is gone. Here’s how to get more space,” CNET, October 19, 2021, https://www.cnet.com/tech/services-and-software/google-photos-unlimited-free-storage-has-ended-heres-what-to-do-now/.
5 Major cloud providers manage digital marketplaces for the sale of cloud applications and other services. Often, third party app developers will offer their applications in these marketplaces. However, some allege that cloud providers such as Amazon, Microsoft, and Google place their first-party applications (that is, those they develop and produce) in more prominent places relative to those developed by other companies. See: Sebastian Moss, “House reports on tech monopolies: Here’s what it says about Amazon Web Services,” Data Center Dynamics, October 7, 2020, https://www.datacenterdynamics.com/en/analysis/heres-what-house-tech-antitrust-report-says-about-amazon-web-services/.
6 Investigation of Competition in Digital Markets, (Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives, 2020), 115, https://judiciary.house.gov/uploadedfiles/competition_in_digital_markets.pdf?utm_campaign=4493-519.
7 Science Direct, “Common Mode Failure,” Science Direct, n.d., https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/common-mode-failure.
8 This is a common practice both in the technology sector and beyond, however many see this practice as playing an outsized role in stifling competition in the technology sector. See: Tony Romm, “FTC will review past mergers by Facebook, Google and other Big Tech companies,” The Washington Post, February 11, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2020/02/11/ftc-will-review-past-mergers-by-facebook-google-other-big-tech-companies/.
9 For example, SWIPO IAAS Drafting Group, “Code of Conduct for Data Portability and Cloud Service Switching for Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud services,” SWIPO AISBL, May 27, 2020, https://swipo.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/SWIPO-IaaS-Code-of-Conduct-version-2020-27-May-2020-v3.0.pdf; and SWIPO AISBL, “Switching and Portability of data related to Software as a Service (SaaS),” SWIPO AISBL, July 8, 2020, https://swipo.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/SWIPO-SaaS-Code-of-Conduct.pdf.